The hepatic tanager (Piranga flava) is a medium-sized American songbird. Formerly placed in the tanager family (Thraupidae), it and other members of its genus are now classified in the cardinal family (Cardinalidae). The species's plumage and vocalizations are similar to other members of the cardinal family.



The common name hepatic means "liver-coloured", namely, brownish-red. The specific name flāva is Latin for yellow or golden.

The habits of the hepatic tanager are similar to those of the western tanager.

It ranges from the southwestern United States (Arizona, New Mexico, and locally in southern California and Colorado) to northern Argentina.

There are three subspecies groups, which may be separate species:

the hepatica group, breeding from Nicaragua north, in pine and pine-oak forests and partially migratory

the lutea group (sometimes known as the tooth-billed tanager), resident from Costa Rica to northern and western South America in highland forest edges

the flava group (sometimes known as the red tanager), resident in open woods elsewhere in South America

Members of the northern group are larger and stockier than other Piranga tanagers and have a relatively short tail and a stout bill. Its brightest color is always on its forehead and throat. In all plumages, it has gray flanks, dusky cheeks, and a dark eye streak. The female is yellow, and the male is red. Its average weight is 38 g (1.3 oz). Its average wingspan is 31.8 cm (12.5 in) and length is 20.3 cm (8.0 in).

Its call is a low, dry chup like the hermit thrush. Its song is clearer than Thraupidae tanagers and far more similar to the song of the black-headed grosbeak, another member of the Cardinalidae. The flight call is a husky and rising weet.

It looks for food in the foliage of trees, moving slowly and methodically; different individuals use different strategies. In summer, the northern form largely eats insects, spiders and some fruit. In Mexico, it has been observed to eat nectar. From Oaxaca south, it follows swarms of army ants.

Even the northern population's behavior and life history are remarkably little known.
Hepatic Tanager
Date Location Count
2020-09-11 11:45Mountain Pine Ridge--Thousand Foot Falls4
2020-09-09 13:23Mountain Pine Ridge--Hidden Valley2
2020-09-13 06:37Mountain Pine Ridge--Baldy Beacon Rd. & Faith FM Tower2
2020-09-01 09:12Mountain Pine Ridge--Forest Reserve Gate2
2020-09-13 09:30Bradley Road1
2020-08-27 09:05Mountain Pine Ridge--Blancaneaux Lodge2
2020-09-12 15:02Thompson Grove Picnic Area (Dallam Co.)1
2020-09-02 07:30Parque Ecológico Paseo Río La Silla2
2020-09-13 07:27Camino al PN La Estanzuela2
2020-09-13 09:19PN La Estanzuela1
2020-09-16 09:52Bosque Encantado1
2020-09-04 07:24Parque Ecológico Chipinque2
2020-08-23 17:00Siguatepeque--Sector Cruz Grande2
2020-09-06 06:21Rincón de Dolores1
2020-08-30 10:23PN Montaña de Celaque--Agua Tibia brecha corta fuego y sendero [Zona Amortiguamiento, 1200-1600 masl]1
2020-09-13 06:55Pinares al noroeste de Campamento Bautista1
2020-09-05 09:05Santa Rosalia Marmol1
2020-09-18 06:07Aldea Las Anonas [Carretera de 6 Kms]1
2020-09-12 07:11El Portillito4
2020-09-17 10:30Cerrito de San Cristóbal1
2020-09-12 05:47Laguna Resort, La Trinidad2
2020-09-12 17:00Mills Canyon- Riparian Crossing near Rim CG1
2020-08-25 06:45Mills Canyon1
2020-09-06 09:03Laguna Farallón1
2020-09-17 06:19Reserva El Jaguar 1
2020-09-11 06:00Pinares San Rafael del Norte2
2020-08-21 07:29Gage Gardens (FWTX 27), Marathon1
2020-09-15 11:24Finca Lindos Ojos2
2020-08-25 12:04Crater Volcancillo1
2020-09-06 09:00Big Bend NP--Chisos Basin Campground1
2020-09-07 08:54Big Bend NP--Chisos Mountains Lodge area1
2020-09-12 14:45Mesa Rest Area1
2020-09-10 16:02Davis Mountains SP (FWTX 23)1
2020-09-12 19:00Lawrence E. Wood Picnic Area & Madera Canyon Trail3
2020-09-17 11:29Davis Mountains Resort (Restricted Access)1
2020-08-22 14:02Vaughn WTP1
2020-09-05 12:41Guadalupe Mts. NP--Frijole Ranch (FWTX 16)2
2020-09-05 12:41Culberson Co.--US90 pecan orchard2
2020-08-25 08:53Lower Pueblo Canyon Wetlands (Santa Fe County)1
2020-08-30 10:00Lower Water Canyon1
2020-09-18 09:00Parque Molino de Flores3
2020-08-30 10:00Lower Pueblo Canyon1
2020-09-12 09:30Bandelier NM - Frijoles Canyon1
2020-08-25 09:02Bandelier NM--Main Loop Trail1
2020-09-15 07:306th Street Pond2
2020-09-16 09:11Los Alamos Nature Center1
2020-09-10 07:12Zona de Conservación Ecológica--Joya de Nieves1
2020-08-29 10:30Cibola NF - Cienega Canyon Picnic Area1
2020-09-02 09:42Ojito de San Antonio Open Space1
2020-08-29 08:02Cibola NF - Cedro Creek/Otero Canyon Trails1
2020-08-21 08:15Cibola NF - Capulin Spring1
2020-09-07 10:23Red Canyon Campground3
2020-08-31 10:58PN Volcan Tenorio--Rio Celeste Trail2
2020-08-31 07:37Bijagua--Aves de Tierras Altas1
2020-09-03 07:11Las Heliconias--Laguna Danta trail2
2020-09-13 14:26PN Fuentes Brotantes1
2020-09-06 10:52ANP Bosque de Tlalpan1
2020-08-29 07:27Tingley Beach - Bosque Ponds1
2020-09-13 10:02Taylor Ranch Library Park1
2020-09-14 06:57Arenal Observatory Lodge1
2020-09-16 08:00Virgen del Socorro1
2020-09-11 06:59Río Rocas2
2020-09-13 11:35El Tigre Waterfalls1
2020-08-26 08:03Camino a la estación San Gerardo.2
2020-09-11 13:41Presa Peralillo1
2020-09-03 06:47Aguirre Spring Entrance Road1
2020-09-18 07:20Aguirre Spring Recreation Area2
2020-09-01 06:32PN Tapanti--Sector Tapanti1
2020-08-25 12:00PN Los Azufres3
2020-09-12 11:04PN El Ávila--Estribo de Duarte1
2020-08-30 07:19Hnos. Mayor, La Lagunita (Caracas)1
2020-09-16 19:22ANP Piedra del Indio2
2020-09-09 08:30Parque Ecológico La Planta1
2020-08-30 13:51Wright's Cabin1
2020-09-04 08:50Railroad Canyon1
2020-08-29 12:59Mimbres River Preserve1
2020-09-07 13:27Gila NF - Apache Creek Campground1
2020-09-06 07:09Dead Man's Canyon Trail2
2020-08-28 17:18Mogollon1
2020-08-22 12:52Pinar de la Venta (pueblo)1
2020-09-05 11:15Area de Protección de Flora y Fauna Bosque La Primavera--Caseta 21
2020-08-21 12:54Pauxi pauxi ProAves Reserve2
2020-08-30 06:30Coronado NF -- Clanton Canyon - Pine Campground1
2020-08-30 07:56Clanton Canyon2
2020-09-11 05:56Portal--Cave Creek Ranch1
2020-09-04 07:47Cave Creek Canyon--USFS Visitor Center1
2020-09-03 05:41Cave Creek Canyon1
2020-09-16 07:02Cave Creek Canyon--Sunny Flat CG1
2020-09-16 07:45Cave Creek Canyon--South Fork1
2020-09-16 10:00Cave Creek Canyon--Southwestern Research Station3
2020-09-18 08:30Herb Martyr Rd 42A2
2020-08-22 05:52Cave Creek Canyon--John Hands CG2
2020-09-12 15:31Cave Creek Canyon--Herb Martyr CG1
2020-08-21 10:52Onion Saddle1
2020-09-16 10:43Pinery Canyon1
2020-09-16 13:10Barfoot Park1
2020-09-04 12:55Rustler Park1
2020-09-12 05:56Price Canyon Trail1
2020-08-23 10:34Pine Canyon (not Pinery Canyon)3
2020-08-26 11:11Raspberry Ridge Trail #2282
2020-09-15 11:15Rucker Canyon Trail #2222
2020-09-12 09:20Rucker Canyon1
2020-08-27 09:45Rucker Canyon--Cypress CG1
2020-09-16 16:02North Fork of Rucker Canyon1
2020-08-23 07:00Reserva El Tejocote2
2020-09-02 14:54W Turkey Creek Rd--Nat'l Forest boundary to road end (mp 8.3-11)2
2020-08-29 13:55Cerro el Quitasol1
2020-08-27 09:31Pinetop--Country Club Trail2
2020-08-27 06:17Pinetop--Billy Creek Trail2
2020-09-15 14:14Pinetop--Woodland Lake Park1
2020-09-01 10:56Big Springs Environmental Study Area2
2020-09-17 09:56Sitgreaves NF--Mogollon Rim Trail1
2020-09-03 18:53Cerro La Bufa1
2020-09-18 06:35Buena Vista Trail1
2020-09-04 11:20Cochise Stronghold Campground1
2020-09-10 16:09Tall Timbers County Park1
2020-09-06 10:05San Pedro RNCA--San Pedro House and trails1
2020-09-11 13:16Timber Camp CG1
2020-09-07 06:55Guindani Canyon2
2020-09-08 06:00Lutz Canyon (Trail #104)3
2020-09-17 06:19Upper Hunter Canyon Trail1
2020-09-14 08:48Miller Canyon--Beatty's Guest Ranch1
2020-09-14 08:50stakeout Rufous-capped Warbler, Hunter Canyon (2013-2019)1
2020-09-06 08:54Carr House Info Center (only, not all of Carr Canyon)1
2020-09-15 08:00Brown Canyon Ranch (opened 2011)1
2020-09-15 06:08Miller Canyon Trail5
2020-09-12 07:32Carr Canyon--Reef Townsite CG2
2020-08-22 08:54Carr Canyon--Old Sawmill Spring1
2020-09-14 07:30Carr Canyon Road--BETWEEN Reef Townsite and Ramsey Vista CGs3
2020-09-07 05:25Parque La Colorado2
2020-09-12 13:13Ramsey Canyon Inn (opened 1988)1
2020-08-24 07:00Ramsey Canyon Preserve (formerly Mile Hi Ranch)3
2020-09-06 06:24Carr Canyon--Comfort Spring Trail2
2020-09-01 06:09Copper Canyon1
2020-09-06 09:23stakeout Tufted Flycatcher, Upper Ramsey Canyon (2015-18)3
2020-08-30 08:15Garden Canyon--Middle Picnic Area2
2020-09-01 08:48Ida Canyon2
2020-08-25 06:16Scheelite Canyon2
2020-08-30 06:17Reserva La Gaviota1
2020-09-01 07:20Huachuca Canyon--lower picnic area2
2020-09-13 07:23Garden Canyon Rd--BETWEEN Upper Picnic Area and Sawmill Canyon2
2020-09-10 05:50Huachuca Canyon3
2020-09-03 07:30Huachuca Canyon--1.7 mile picnic area2
2020-09-07 09:15Sawmill Canyon2
2020-09-17 15:04Meteor Crater RV Park1
2020-09-11 06:00Scotia Canyon--upper1
2020-09-11 06:40Woods Canyon Lake1
2020-09-03 07:00Mt. Lemmon--Bear Canyon (General Hitchcock Campground)2
2020-09-12 07:56Mt. Lemmon--Bear Canyon (Cypress, Middle Bear, Chihuahua Pine Picnic Areas)1
2020-08-23 09:00Pinal Mountains--Madera Peak Rd (FR 580)2
2020-09-18 15:14Mt. Lemmon--Bear Wallow1
2020-09-02 10:30Mt. Lemmon--Inspiration Rock Picnic Area1
2020-09-18 07:30Mt. Lemmon--Summerhaven1
2020-09-17 08:37Mt. Lemmon--Ski Valley1
2020-09-19 06:23Ecoparque Los Alcázares-Arenillo--Jaulas1
2020-09-12 08:14Ecoparque Los Alcázares-Arenillo--Torre Mirador1
2020-08-29 07:20Ecoparque Los Alcázares-Arenillo--Sendero Mágico1
2020-09-13 07:06Harshaw Creek Road1
2020-09-04 09:22Humboldt Canyon3
2020-09-12 08:30Paton Center for Hummingbirds (Patons' Yard)1
2020-08-21 07:40Santa Rita Mountains--Cave Canyon Trailhead1
2020-09-14 08:03Gardner Canyon Trail2
2020-09-09 07:00Florida Canyon--lower4
2020-09-18 15:33Ashurst Lake1
2020-09-05 14:38Patagonia Roadside Rest Area1
2020-08-29 09:57Madera Canyon--Josephine Saddle1
2020-09-06 10:39Distrito de Manejo Integrado Guasimo1
2020-09-17 08:32Madera Canyon--Mt. Wrightson Picnic Area & Upper Canyon Trails2
2020-08-26 09:15Madera Canyon--Madera Kubo B&B1
2020-08-28 08:16Madera Canyon--Pima Co.1
2020-09-18 21:14Madera Canyon--Santa Rita Lodge2
2020-09-18 11:11Madera Canyon--Madera Picnic Area2
2020-09-18 13:32Madera Canyon--Amphitheater2
2020-09-17 09:42Madera Canyon--Whitehouse Picnic area1
2020-09-18 12:52Madera Canyon--Carrie Nation Trail1
2020-09-12 14:02Madera Canyon--Nature Trail (county line/Madera PA to Amphitheater)1
2020-09-11 08:03Madera Canyon--Proctor Rd.1
2020-09-06 09:00Mt. Hopkins Rd--upper portion (km 9 to gate)1
2020-09-06 05:57Patagonia Lake SP--Birding Trail1
2020-08-26 07:37Agua Caliente Canyon1
2020-09-07 07:39Coconino National Forest--Double Springs2
2020-09-07 10:31Montosa Canyon--km 1 (culvert area)1
2020-09-06 09:51Pine Creek Canyon (access via the Bearfoot Trail; no access from Camp Lo Mia)3
2020-09-11 07:23Rio de Flag--Picture Canyon3
2020-09-14 08:43Little Elden Springs1
2020-09-11 08:19Elden Spring1
2020-08-21 06:19Slate Creek Divide--FR-201A (Maricopa Co.)1
2020-09-15 09:00Slate Creek Divide (Gila Co.)5
2020-08-21 07:38Slate Creek Divide--Sycamore Creek West Fork Basin2
2020-09-05 08:02Rio de Flag--Willow Bend/Urban Trail1
2020-09-12 09:05De Anza Trail--Tubac1
2020-09-13 14:19Tubac Presidio SHP1
2020-09-06 06:05Santa Gertrudis Lane (foot access only)1
2020-09-01 06:15Kachina Wetlands1
2020-08-22 06:51Puerto Canyon1
2020-08-22 09:00Oak Creek Canyon--Cave Springs CG1
2020-09-12 07:00Sycamore Canyon (Pajarito Mountains)2
2020-08-26 15:08Papago Tanks1
2020-09-06 16:45California Gulch/Warsaw Canyon confluence2
2020-09-06 09:23Boynton Canyon1
2020-09-11 07:38Seven Springs Wash1
2020-09-18 14:02Loro Coroniazul ProAves Reserve2
2020-09-16 08:06Mingus Mountain--Butterfly Spring1
2020-08-24 15:58Horsethief Basin Lake3
2020-08-24 12:32Crown King--Poland Creek bridge1
2020-09-10 09:00Highlands Center--Lynx Creek Site8
2020-09-02 07:05Watson Lake and Riparian Preserve2
2020-09-01 07:10Prescott--Goldwater Lakes2
2020-08-31 07:50Banning Creek Trail2
2020-08-25 06:25Thumb Butte Trail1
2020-08-31 09:20Aspen Creek Trail #482
2020-09-13 07:35Granite Basin Lake2
2020-08-31 11:05Aspen Springs—Dispersed Campsite 62
2020-09-12 11:15Finca Bosque de Niebla1
2020-08-23 07:30Finca Manzanares1
2020-09-06RN El Danubio2
2020-09-14 06:30Parcelación La Monja2
2020-08-23 08:06Los Encuentros-Paquisha Alto road/Zarza Reserve3
2020-08-24 06:40Colinas do Sul, GO 2392
2020-09-04 06:32Fazenda Água Limpa2
2020-08-22 11:55Ruta Transchaco, Mariscal Estigarribia, Dpto. Boquerón (Alto Chaco)2
2020-08-26 08:46Reserva Natural Privada Eco-Portal de Piedra2
2020-08-22 08:18Parque Natural de la Ciudad1
2020-09-15 08:25San luis1
2020-09-06 08:54Três Lagoas--Rio Sucuriú4
2020-09-15 07:00Botumirim--Zé Félix2
2020-09-11 16:00Paclin viejo1
2020-08-29 12:30Dique La Cañada3
2020-09-01 14:50La Estancita3
2020-09-09 07:30Puente sobre Río Tragadero1
2020-09-13 06:57Delfim Moreira--Charco1
2020-09-12 13:46Delfim Moreira--Fazenda da Onça2
2020-08-26 06:35RPPN Trápaga--Estradas de Acesso1
2020-08-21 15:14Iberá--Portal San Antonio1
2020-08-28 14:40Peruíbe--Mochileiros Hostel e Observação de aves1
2020-08-24 07:09Parque Municipal Montanhas de Teresópolis3
2020-08-30 16:24Ruta 123 y Río Santa Lucía1
2020-09-08 07:36Semillamadre1
2020-09-14 08:11San Marcos Sierras--bosque de chaco seco cercano al rincón1
2020-09-16 09:00San Marcos Sierra2
2020-09-05 10:34Santa Inés1
2020-09-13 09:04Los Paredones2
2020-08-25 07:42Caranday1
2020-08-26 12:33Villa Giardino--Camino de los artesanos2
2020-08-26 14:11Villa Giardino--Dique El Portecelo2
2020-09-13 14:57Cranioleuca Cueva1
2020-08-23 18:06Reserva Natural Cascada Los Chorrillos2
2020-09-13 10:00Dique José de la Quintana1
2020-08-29 13:00Rincón de lo Ciervos1
2020-09-07 14:42Estancia La Media Luna.1
2020-09-05 09:21Reserva Natural Estricta Quebrada de Las Higueritas2
2020-09-06 06:54Urupema -- Eco-Pousada Rio dos Touros1
2020-09-02 15:20Reserva Natural Mogote Bayo2
2020-09-15 10:30San José del Rincón2
2020-09-11 07:26Concordia--Parque San Carlos5
2020-09-03 11:02Concordia--Desembocadura Arroyo Manzores2
2020-08-22 08:58Puerto Yeruá1
2020-08-25 09:00Establecimiento Bichadero-Fros, Cuchilla de Laureles2
2020-09-02 08:12Balneario Iporá (Uruguay 2)3
2020-08-25 13:00Paso Centurión2
2020-08-23 11:25PN Otamendi/Ciervo De Los Pantanos (AICA BA04)--Área General2
2020-09-16 11:04Puertos2
2020-09-18 13:35Reserva Ribera Norte1
2020-09-16 15:58Proyecto Reserva Natural Yrigoyen1
2020-09-16 10:17Parque Saavedra1
2020-09-07 18:00Lago de Regatas1
2020-08-24 16:00Parque 3 de Febrero1
2020-08-22 14:25Vivero de Plantas Nativas Solnaturi1
2020-09-11 07:30Reserva Natural Municipal Santa Catalina2
2020-09-13 11:15Santiago Vazquez--Humedal1
2020-08-21 15:30Aguas Blancas, Lavalleja2
2020-09-12 08:04Parque Rivera1
2020-09-16 10:57Parque Rodo--Lago1
2020-09-05 11:02Desembocadura Arroyo Carrasco1
2020-09-14 12:40Punta Indio (AICA BA08)2
2020-09-08 07:55Establ. La Goyavière, San Carlos1
2020-09-12 13:00Humedales Laguna del Diario--Norte1
2020-09-14 17:14Laguna del Diario1