The Pallas's gull or great black-headed gull (Ichthyaetus ichthyaetus) is a large gull. As is the case with many gulls, it has traditionally been placed in the genus Larus. The scientific name is from Ancient Greek. Ichthyaetus is from ikhthus, "fish", and aetos, "eagle".

This species breeds in colonies in marshes and islands from southern Russia to Mongolia. It is migratory, wintering in the eastern Mediterranean, Arabia and India. This gull nests on the ground, laying between two and four eggs.

It occurs in western Europe only as a rare vagrant. In Great Britain a recent review left a single occurrence in 1859 as the only acceptable record of this bird. The species also occurs as a vagrant in differing parts of the Indian Ocean, south of its normal range, and along the northern and eastern coasts of Africa, where it visits annually on an irregular basis.



This is a very large gull, being easily the world's largest black-headed gull and the third largest species of gull in the world, after the great black-backed gull and the glaucous gull. It measures 55–72 cm (22–28 in) in length with a 142 to 170 cm (56 to 67 in) wingspan. Weight can vary from 0.96–2.1 kg (2.1–4.6 lb), with an average of 1.6 kg (3.5 lb) in males and 1.22 kg (2.7 lb) in females. Among standard measurements, the wing chord is 43.5 to 52 cm (17.1 to 20.5 in), the bill is 4.7 to 7.3 cm (1.9 to 2.9 in) and the tarsus is 6.5 to 8.4 cm (2.6 to 3.3 in). Summer adults are unmistakable, since no other gull of this size has a black hood. The adults have grey wings and back, with conspicuous white "mirrors" at the wing tips. The legs are yellow and the bill is red.

In all other plumages, a dark mask through the eye indicates the vestiges of the hood. The call is a deep aargh cry. Young birds attain largely grey upperparts quite rapidly, but they take four years to reach maturity.

This bird has a deep, rather nasal flight-call which resembles the call of the lesser black-backed gull. Although they are noisy at colonies, Pallas's gulls are mostly silent when breeding.

These birds are predatory, taking fish, crustaceans, insects and even small mammals.

The Pallas's gull is one of the species to which the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds (AEWA) applies.
Pallas's Gull
Date Location Count
2021-02-17 14:36Adamovské jazerá- fishponds--Adamov1
2021-02-25 08:31Tserkovski Reservoir5
2021-02-13 07:00Burgas Lake--West1
2021-02-13 09:30Mandrensko Lake--General Area3
2021-02-22 10:12Burgas Lake--East
2021-02-19 10:28Uzungeren Lake2
2021-02-20 10:58Poda Nature Reserve1
2021-02-23 17:00Atanasovsko Lake--Southwest1
2021-02-07 13:20Chengene Skele Bay1
2021-02-01 11:10Manyas Gölü Kuş Cenneti MP--Kule2
2021-02-04 09:15Manyas Gölü--Kuşcenneti Köyü4
2021-02-21 12:00ÖKA - Kocaçay Deltası - Genel Alan5
2021-02-24 13:16Terkos Gölü--batı9
2021-02-22 09:48Büyükçekmece Gölü--Tepekent sahili1
2021-02-06 12:00Eskikaraağaç Köyü-Karacabey-Bursa2
2021-03-01 08:00Çakırca Köyü20
2021-02-05 12:00Sarıyar Barajı - Doğu16
2021-02-25 16:00Çaycuma/Filyos Irmağı Sazlıkları2
2021-02-09 07:30IBA Göksu Deltası--genel area
2021-02-20 08:02Ashdod Marina מרינה אשדוד1
2021-02-16 13:41Lachish River Park, West1
2021-02-20 08:52Lakhish Park Ashdod פארק לכיש אשדוד1
2021-02-10 15:05Yavne-Yam=יבנה-ים1
2021-03-01 13:57Palmachim Beach NP גן לאומי חוף פלמחים1
2021-02-10 09:45Palmachim Fisherman's beach פלמחים חוף הדייגים1
2021-02-27 09:53Середньодніпровська ГЕС (Mid-Dnipro hydroelectric power plant)5
2021-02-20 06:40Bat Yam - Jaffa border seawatch נק' תצפית ים גבול בת ים-יפו3
2021-02-28 06:29Tel Barukh coastal sand dunes רכס תל ברוך1
2021-02-19 08:30Alexander Stream estuary שפך נחל אלכסנדר4
2021-02-27 10:36Taninim Hill תל תנינים5
2021-03-01 11:38Ma'agan Michael Fishponds בריכות מעגן מיכאל14
2021-02-27 05:59Ma'agan Michael fishponds & beach (general) מעגן מיכאל בריכות וחוף (כללי)50
2021-03-01 06:57Ma'ayan Tzvi Fish Ponds בריכות מעיין צבי28
2021-02-27 11:09Nahsholim בריכות נחשולים2
2021-02-28 16:32Dor-ha-Bonim Beach Reserve שמורת חוף דור הבונים6
2021-02-09 08:30Atlit Salt Pools בריכות המלח עתלית1
2021-02-09 15:15Atlit beach חוף עתלית6
2021-02-15 15:27Shikmona Hill תל שקמונה1
2021-02-19 15:40Acre Port נמל עכו4
2021-02-19 14:53Acre Beach חוף עכו צפון2
2021-02-26 06:00International Birding and Research Center Eilat (IBRCE) מרכז הצפרות הבינלאומי אילת1
2021-03-02 06:05Eilat north beach חוף צפוני אילת4
2021-03-01 08:20Eilat--KM20 Flamingo Pools בריכות המלח ק"מ 204
2021-02-27 15:30Yedikir Baraji
2021-02-20 10:00Tel Yosef fishponds בריכות דגים תל יוסף2
2021-02-05 06:25Wadi Tsvia הר גלבוע נחל צבייה19
2021-02-12 16:38Bit Alfa Fish Ponds==בריכות דגים בית אלפא3
2021-02-28 11:32Bar'am fishponds מדגה ברעם3
2021-02-19 07:38Tirat Zvi fish ponds בריכות טירת צבי10
2021-02-02 11:58Gesher fishponds בריכות גשר9
2021-02-07 06:56Kfar Ruppin fishponds בריכות כפר רופין1
2021-02-09 06:30Kfar Ruppin lower reservoirs כפר רופין מאגרים תחתונים1
2021-02-28 15:05Kızılırmak Deltası Kuş Cenneti Genel Alan3
2021-02-26 09:00Yörükler Köyü12
2021-02-26 10:30Dereköy Limanı2
2021-02-03 07:30Yeşilırmak Deltası Genel1
2021-02-27 07:30Çarşamba Yeşilırmak Burnu Açıkları1
2021-02-16 12:57IBA Kuyucuk Gölü1
2021-02-28 16:20Kumisi Reservoir
2021-02-21 08:10Tbilisi Reservoir3
2021-03-01 11:09Al Jahra Reserve (Restricted access)1
2021-02-26 06:41Al Asfar Lake (بحيرة الأصفر)1
2021-02-06 10:30Al Farkiah Mangrove1
2021-02-06 16:20Emirates Palace1
2021-02-20 08:47Abu Dhabi Corniche1
2021-02-26 07:00Saadiyat Beach Golf Club (restricted access)1
2021-02-18 15:45Khor Qirqishan (restricted access)60
2021-02-20 16:15Eastern Lagoon--eastern viewpoint8
2021-02-26 17:10Abu Dhabi Officers' Club1
2021-02-26 17:15Yas Island--northern mangrove tip1
2021-02-19 07:30Al Maha Forest--Pivot Fields (no access)1
2021-02-06 12:53Dubai Marina--offshore1
2021-02-17 18:17Palm Jumeirah--Waldorf Astoria1
2021-02-01 12:30Ra's al-Khor Wildlife Sanctuary--general area2
2021-02-05 07:09Ajman Water Treatment Plant2
2021-02-07 08:34Khor Khalasi and Coastal Littoral
2021-02-19 16:20Hilf Sewage Works100
2021-02-09 08:55Pasabandar--Mangrove Forest38
2021-02-28 08:00Tudakul Lake37
2021-02-27 10:02Haleji Lake7
2021-02-09 16:30Modhva Beach5
2021-02-27 12:27Narara Marine NP8
2021-02-22 13:52Saltpans near Vadinar1
2021-02-21 16:23Dhinchada Lake2
2021-02-22 07:28Sachana Beach4
2021-02-26 13:15Balachadi Beach1
2021-02-16 17:36Vadla Dam( 22.916, 71.971)1
2021-02-11 08:48Nalsarovar Bird Sanctuary2
2021-02-27 16:01Nalsarovar--Flamingo Sankul7
2021-02-26 16:45Avaniya Lake6
2021-02-28 08:15Kalai5
2021-02-21 07:40Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Bombay13
2021-02-08 08:43Alibaug--Akshi Beach20
2021-02-21 06:15Bhandup Pumping Station -- creek mudflats5
2021-02-04 08:10Thane Creek1
2021-02-06 09:30Thane creek Flamingo sanctuary, Airoli1
2021-02-26 09:37Coastal and marine biodiversity center5
2021-02-06 16:17Revdanda Beach17
2021-02-17 08:44Бишкек балык көлмөлөрү (Bishkek Fish Ponds)11
2021-02-02 13:16Harike Bird Sanctuary5
2021-02-07 07:30Veer Dam1
2021-02-25 16:06Chapora Estuary
2021-02-13 06:40Sambhar Lake1
2021-02-13 10:12Ranjit Sagar Dam20
2021-02-03 07:00Naval Beach Karwar42
2021-02-02 09:49Sthana, near Shah Nehar Barrage Lake1
2021-02-28 07:57Bhigwan -- Kumbhargaon Bird Sanctuary
2021-02-13 14:49Mattewara Forest4
2021-02-14 13:56Gandhisagar Sanctuary2
2021-02-16 06:30Bhigwan -- Agneepankh birding area1
2021-02-12 12:18Pong Dam--Nagrota Surian1
2021-02-13 11:00Gandhisagar Forest Resthouse4
2021-02-02 10:07Pongdam6
2021-02-02 09:02Maharana Pratap Sagar (Pong Dam)9
2021-02-15 07:00Jaipur--Floating Palace1
2021-02-14 08:01Barkhera2
2021-02-04 15:15Babaji Ki Paal--Kanota Dam3
2021-02-18 10:00Lake Sorbulak2
2021-02-28 07:10Kodi--Kundapura2
2021-02-22 16:30Kundapura Inland Jetty1
2021-02-03 14:38Pali Farm, Chambal4
2021-02-28 15:14Kumbla-Shiriya Estuary1
2021-02-21 07:32Budhera WTP, Gurgaon1
2021-02-12 16:25Chithari Estuary1
2021-02-07 06:54Alamatti Backwaters--Herkal ಆಲಮಟ್ಟಿ ಹಿನ್ನೀರು--ಹೆರ್ಕಲ್20
2021-02-14 10:00Yamuna Biodiversity Park phase 2 IN-DL1
2021-02-21 08:00Yamuna Khadar, Wazirabad1
2021-03-02 15:20Okhla Bird Sanctuary2
2021-02-13 02:10Okhla Barrage1
2021-02-21 10:05Asan Conservation Reserve5
2021-02-02 18:00Haiderpur Farming Ponds
2021-02-14 13:22Haiderpur Wetlands -- Madhya Ganga Canal Trail5
2021-02-21 10:00Haiderpur Wetlands and Bijnor Barrage8
2021-02-10 07:05Ponnani Beach1
2021-02-13 08:30Kaudiya/Gangabhogpur -- Talla1
2021-02-21 06:50Rajaji National Park2
2021-02-14 12:15Virbhadra Barrage, Rishikesh1
2021-02-14 15:05Nilayoram--Nila River35
2021-02-21 06:30Munakakkadavu
2021-02-20 08:45National Chambal Sanctuary -- Jaitpur1
2021-02-21 07:22National Chambal Sanctuary -- Nadgawan2
2021-02-07 16:10Sirudhavur Lake (சிறுதாவுர் ஏரி)1
2021-02-27 08:27Sholinganallur/Perumbakkam Marshlands1
2021-02-27 07:30Pulicat Lake (TN section)10
2021-02-25 07:07Nemmeli Salt Pans3
2021-02-07 10:40Adam's Bridge15
2021-02-06 08:00Uppu Revu Mudflats & Sandspit (Krishna Sanctuary)40
2021-02-21 06:30Urumalei12
2021-02-10 07:05Mannar Island--Korakulam3
2021-02-27 16:30Medawachiya Hwy @09.05491, 079.8571230
2021-02-04 17:51Vankalai Bird Sanctuary2
2021-02-12 13:20Gosthani River Mouth, Bheemili12
2021-02-27 17:28National Institute of Technology (NIT Patna) Gulzarbagh,3
2021-02-25 04:00Gajoldoba Barrage JG1
2021-02-05 11:30Frazergunj1
2021-02-07 06:45Bakkhali sea beach1
2021-02-19 11:40Henry's island3
2021-02-25 09:01Nalban Bheri5
2021-02-27 07:10Padma River & Chars (Rajshahi)3
2021-02-06 06:30Sunderbans Tiger Reserve1
2021-02-12 09:16Sonadia Island (Cox's Bazar)41
2021-02-18 13:00纳帕海 (Napa Lake)5
2021-02-19 15:50小普陀 (Little Putuo)1
2021-02-06 12:00Inner Gulf Pelagic--off Samut Sakhon1
2021-03-01 10:30Mai Po Nature Reserve--mudflat hide2
2021-02-28 08:30Mai Po Nature Reserve2
2021-02-05 13:49宜蘭蘭陽溪口IBA--北岸(Lanyang River Estuary IBA--North Shore)1