The ruff (Philomachus pugnax) is a medium-sized wading bird that breeds in marshes and wet meadows across northern Eurasia. This highly gregarious sandpiper is migratory and sometimes forms huge flocks in its winter grounds, which include southern and western Europe, Africa, southern Asia and Australia. It is usually considered to be the only member of its genus, and the broad-billed and sharp-tailed sandpipers are its closest relatives.

The ruff is a long-necked, pot-bellied bird. This species shows marked sexual dimorphism; the male is much larger than the female (the reeve), and has a breeding plumage that includes brightly coloured head tufts, bare orange facial skin, extensive black on the breast, and the large collar of ornamental feathers that inspired this bird's English name. The female and the non-breeding male have grey-brown upperparts and mainly white underparts. Three differently plumaged types of male, including a rare form that mimics the female, use a variety of strategies to obtain mating opportunities at a lek, and the colourful head and neck feathers are erected as part of the elaborate main courting display. The female has one brood per year and lays four eggs in a well-hidden ground nest, incubating the eggs and rearing the chicks, which are mobile soon after hatching, on her own. Predators of wader chicks and eggs include mammals such as foxes, feral cats and stoats, and birds such as large gulls, corvids and skuas.

The ruff forages in wet grassland and soft mud, probing or searching by sight for edible items. It primarily feeds on insects, especially in the breeding season, but it will consume plant material, including rice and maize, on migration and in winter. Classified as "least concern" on the IUCN Red List criteria, the global conservation concerns are relatively low because of the large numbers that breed in Scandinavia and the Arctic. However, the range in much of Europe is contracting because of land drainage, increased fertiliser use, the loss of mown or grazed breeding sites, and over-hunting. This decline has seen it listed in the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds (AEWA).
Ruff
Date Location Count
2021-05-16 07:40Bombay Hook NWR--Refuge Headquarters1
2021-05-22 19:09Montezuma NWR--Visitor Center area1
2021-05-17 16:45Moriches Island1
2021-05-23 07:15Whitefish Point1
2021-05-29 17:10Drayton--Crystal Sugar Ponds1
2021-05-30 09:00Vallée du Milieu1
2021-05-30 14:30étang boulot1
2021-05-29 15:43NL--Renews--beach & bay1
2021-05-30 10:05NL--Renews--Southside1
2021-05-21 14:30NL--Renews (townsite)1
2021-06-11 19:40Paul do Cabo da Praia1
2021-05-22 10:22RN Estuário do Tejo--38 Moios (acesso condicionado)1
2021-05-22 09:00RN Estuário do Tejo--EVOA--área geral (acesso condicionado)2
2021-05-22 15:34Muckrush1
2021-05-19 20:04Ría de Foz--Os Fondás1
2021-05-27 21:00Ribadeo--Rinlo (Charca e campos)2
2021-05-22 09:10El Batán--Arrozales del Pueblo1
2021-06-12 07:40Embalse de Alcollarín1
2021-05-18 09:05Lagunas de Villafáfila RNat--Laguna Salina Grande1
2021-05-18 18:34Lagunas de Villafáfila RNat--Área General
2021-05-31 16:19Balranald RSPB Reserve2
2021-05-27 13:54Loch Sanderay (Loch Sanndaraigh)1
2021-06-04 08:00Loch Stiapabhat LNR1
2021-05-16 12:08Laguna de Navaseca
2021-05-16 16:23Marismas de Santoña, Victoria y Joyel PNat--Cicero4
2021-05-22 12:08Laguna del Camino de Villafranca4
2021-05-30 15:15Seward--Airport Mudflats1
2021-06-01 16:26Newport Wetlands RSPB Reserve--Goldcliff Lagoons1
2021-05-16 14:46Goldcliff Point1
2021-05-30 08:27Marshside RSPB Reserve1
2021-05-18 07:21Arguedas--arrozales3
2021-05-24 08:04Gallocanta--Observatorio de La Ermita1
2021-05-23 15:20Laguna de Gallocanta--Área general1
2021-05-18 17:51Alcañiz--Salada Pequeña1
2021-05-16 11:03St Aidan's RSPB Reserve2
2021-05-22 14:45Pagham Harbour RSPB Reserve and LNR--Sidlesham Ferry1
2021-06-09 17:12Druridge Pools NWT NR and Druridge Links (NT)1
2021-06-02 19:29Embalse de San Salvador1
2021-05-18 11:00North Ronaldsay2
2021-05-16 10:15Summer Leys LNR1
2021-05-20 07:08Delta de l'Ebre PNat--Torre de l'Alfacada1
2021-06-03 08:10Estany d'Ivars--Area general1
2021-06-08 09:10Frampton Marsh RSPB Reserve1
2021-06-02 11:25Kilnsea--Wetlands1
2021-05-31 08:30Rye Harbour SWT NR1
2021-06-05 15:12Titchwell Marsh RSPB Reserve2
2021-05-18 16:30North Point/Warham Freshmarsh1
2021-06-01 17:00Baltasound1
2021-05-16 09:21Hollesley Marshes RSPB Reserve1
2021-06-06 15:24Hickling Broad NNR--Hickling Marshes NWT NR1
2021-05-20 17:00*Aiguamolls de l'Empordà PNat--Area General* (please, choose a more accurated location)10
2021-05-20 18:15Aiguamolls de l'Empordà PNat--El Matà
2021-05-19 12:13Arrossars de Pals1
2021-05-24 09:10Camargue--Marais du Mas d'Agon1
2021-05-30 12:28Driemanspolder, Zoetermeer1
2021-05-20 16:27Zoutleeuw - Het Vinne1
2021-06-04 20:50Violenberg1
2021-05-23 05:30Lauwersmeer6
2021-05-21 09:30Centro Cicogne di Racconigi1
2021-05-20 19:35Grudavatnet3
2021-05-16 14:36Klärteiche Zuckerfabrik Offstein (restricted access)2
2021-05-19 08:37Neeracherried1
2021-06-08 11:45Ochsenmoor (gesamt)1
2021-06-08 14:30Dümmer--Osterfeiner Moor1
2021-05-16 15:15Rickelsbüller Koog (NSG)40
2021-06-01 18:37Beltringharder Koog (NSG)--Feuchtwiesen Ost4
2021-06-02 20:00Gundelfinger Moos (NSG)1
2021-06-04 10:20Bygholm Vejle5
2021-05-17 18:21Lago di Peretola1
2021-05-30 08:00Fokstumyra NR1
2021-05-23 19:12Kiesgrube Burgliebenau1
2021-05-28 08:00Linosa1
2021-05-25 18:24Zwenkauer See1
2021-05-16 10:30Gaulosen wildlife preserve2
2021-05-23 04:40Nordre Øyeren NR--Snekkervika1
2021-05-27 08:15Nordre Øyeren NR--Årnestangen1
2021-05-16 07:19Välen1
2021-05-22 05:15Vasche di Ischitella (Le Soglitelle)6
2021-06-12 07:26Klydesøen -- Sydtårnet3
2021-05-17 19:19Villahøj Sø7
2021-05-16 11:19Lund--Nöbbelövs mosse2
2021-05-23 09:41Ängstorpsdammen1
2021-05-17 16:35Klingavälsåns utlopp2
2021-06-01 16:00Lake Annsjon Reserve4
2021-05-19 10:43Przemków Fishponds6
2021-05-26 06:47VN Rozkoš2
2021-05-18 18:00Borsodi-dűlő--Fertőújlak31
2021-05-22 11:30NPR Lednické rybníky--Hlohovecký rybník2
2021-05-22 13:50Lanžhot3
2021-06-06 18:12Barycz River Valley--Jamnik Fishponds1
2021-05-30 05:24Ottenby--södra udde4
2021-06-09 05:53Kungsstenarna3
2021-05-18 05:01Ottenby NR3
2021-05-29 15:48Möckelmossen1
2021-05-22 05:34Görans dämme4
2021-05-30 13:46Árasztás-Apaj1
2021-05-23 16:20Apaji fishponds--Apaj6
2021-06-11 07:59Beka Natural Reserve3
2021-05-17 17:06Bugaj Fishponds1
2021-05-17 16:55Rudze Fishponds1
2021-05-17 11:47Spytkowice Fishponds1
2021-05-21 07:54Péteri-tó1
2021-05-22 08:02Angarnssjöängens NR1
2021-05-18 07:15Csaj-tó3
2021-05-21 08:28Wiślica--Górki Fishponds1
2021-06-14Old Lakes of Hortobágy fishponds--Hortobágyi-halastó3
2021-05-19 12:00Kösélyszeg-- from Hajdúszovát to Derecske1
2021-05-24 15:29Berettyószentmárton sewage pond -- Berettyóújfalu3
2021-06-05 14:33Nagy-Nyomás moor--Derecske2
2021-05-31 17:40Szelkó-Lake--Nyíregyháza4
2021-05-30 18:43Sperchios Delta2
2021-06-12 06:00Stankiškiai (Kniaupo Bay) Observation Tower (Stankiškių (Kniaupo įlankos apžvalgos) bokštelis10
2021-05-22 08:23Nea Kios--Saltflats1
2021-05-16 07:11Atalanti Bay Wetlands6
2021-05-20 17:10Lake Volvi and Koroneia National Park--Lake Koroneia West2
2021-05-23 10:37Seroczyn fishponds1
2021-05-23 11:50Agios Mamas Marsh45
2021-05-16 08:00Vourkari Bay1
2021-05-29 12:45Stordalens NR5
2021-06-06 19:15Lakjosen2
2021-05-17 15:20Biebrza NP--Biały Grąd Trail & Observation Tower1
2021-05-24 12:07Tisnes våtmark (marsh)4
2021-05-26 06:35Oropos Lagoon3
2021-05-22 11:45Eurajoki--Säppi1
2021-06-09 11:00Kristiinankaupunki--Trutklobbarna1
2021-06-12 20:42Kristiinankaupunki--Hamnfjärden lintutorni25
2021-05-23 06:25Schinias National Park11
2021-05-29 20:10Schinias NP--Marsh6
2021-05-16 10:50Pori--Levon lammet lintutorni1
2021-05-20 19:06Pori--Yyteri, Sannannokka lintutorni15
2021-05-20 17:18Pori--Yyteri lietteet lintutorni2
2021-05-24 07:35Turku--Friskalanlahti lintutorni2
2021-05-19 21:03Turku--Friskalanlahti1
2021-06-10 13:38Siemianówka Lake--Krowie Wyspy meadows1
2021-05-18 11:05Trud Fishponds4
2021-05-29 05:08Hanko--Täktbukten1
2021-06-05 12:10Alyki Lagoon (Naxos)4
2021-06-05 11:35Glyfada lagoon, Potamides marsh & juniper forest (Naxos)2
2021-05-23 12:34Рыбхоз Днепробугский (Dnieprabuhski Fishery)1
2021-06-05 18:48Kalloni Salt Pans, Lesvos1
2021-05-18 07:36Papio Ornithological Preserve (Papio ornitologinis draustinis)1
2021-05-18 11:00Alaçatı2
2021-05-20 18:25Vihti--Vanjärvi6
2021-05-19 15:18Umurbey Deltası1
2021-05-21 18:38Kirkkonummi--Saltfjärden lintutorni1
2021-06-11 05:57Kirkkonummi--Norra Fladet6
2021-05-16 08:13Kavak Deltası8
2021-05-18 07:37Balıkesir: Edremit: KOSKS 01: Dalyan2
2021-06-13 16:51Espoo--Laajalahti, Maarin lintutorni4
2021-06-10 21:58Espoo--Laajalahti3
2021-05-17 05:40Helsinki--Viikki8
2021-05-21 09:03Helsinki--Vanhankaupunginlahti10
2021-06-14 10:00Helsinki--Vanhankaupunginlahti Hakalanniemi lintutorni10
2021-05-23 09:27Pyhäjoki--Parhalahti lintutorni18
2021-05-16 08:00Mandrensko Lake--General Area2
2021-05-20 07:02Atanasovsko Lake--Southwest3
2021-05-19 07:37Atanasovsko Lake--Northeast8
2021-05-19 05:30Atanasovosko Lake--General Area27
2021-05-22 13:00Pomorie Lake--Salt Marshes6
2021-06-13 06:35Raahe--Pattijokisuu25
2021-05-26 11:45Povelyanovo Marshlands1
2021-05-20 15:15Tornio--Raumonjärvi Hakaniitty lintutorni7
2021-05-25 06:35Raahe--Inakari
2021-05-20 15:47Tornio--Raumonjärvi10
2021-05-26 12:04Siikajoki--Merikylänlahti lintutorni
2021-05-17 09:40Pukkila--Kanteleenjärvi7
2021-05-20 15:07Hailuoto--Kirkkosalmi40
2021-05-30 10:27Kemi--Tuhka-allas4
2021-06-04 17:00Keminmaa--Elijärvi12
2021-05-16 22:31Liminka--Virkkula N lintutorni50
2021-06-12 11:00Liminka--Virkkula
2021-05-23 05:10Loviisa--Aspskär1
2021-05-20 11:02Kärsämäki--Nurmesjärvi lintutorni20
2021-05-22 15:25Oulu--Oritkari50
2021-06-04 09:40Kempele--Vihiluoto1
2021-05-23 19:56Kiviniemi Lintutorni, Oulu5
2021-05-30 11:32Techirghiol Lake3
2021-05-19 10:50Иловые пруды у д. Синило (Sludge ponds near Sinila village)
2021-05-18 20:00Karinnokka Lintutorni, Kittilä20
2021-05-29Vadu area3
2021-05-29 10:00Çürüksu Havzası Yeniköy altı5
2021-05-16 11:11Рыбхоз Волма (Volma fish farm)3
2021-05-29 11:00Hersek Lagünü3
2021-05-24 12:10İzmit Körfezi Sulak Alanı4
2021-06-04 20:33Sodankylä--Ilmakkijärvi lintutorni7
2021-06-04 16:07Kemijärvi--Pulp Mill1
2021-05-17 06:15Manavgat Nehir Ağzı1
2021-05-16 12:22Parikkala--Pohjaranta Lintutorni20
2021-05-29 14:30Çaycuma/Filyos Irmağı Sazlıkları5
2021-05-22 07:05Parikkala--Saari Jyrkilä1
2021-05-26 09:45Paphos (Πάφος) WTP2
2021-06-12 16:30Mogan Gölü Sel Kapanı5
2021-05-19 16:30Mogan Gölü--Genel Alan3
2021-06-09 11:43ÖKA Kozanlı Gölü1
2021-05-20 06:00IBA Göksu Deltasi -- Akgöl3
2021-05-24 17:00IBA Göksu Deltası--genel area20
2021-06-04 09:21Re'im resevoir מאגר רעים1
2021-05-27 17:25Habesor Reservoirs==מאגרי הבשור1
2021-05-19 15:00Timorim מט"ש תימורים23
2021-05-18 15:15Kedma מחפורת ומאגר קדמה3
2021-05-16 06:16Poleg Marshes ביצות נחל פולג3
2021-05-16 07:30Nahsholim בריכות נחשולים4
2021-05-24 16:00Hulda Reservoir מאגר חולדה1
2021-05-17 17:31Menashe Reservoir == מאגר החדרה מנשה11
2021-06-11 06:18Gan Shmuel fishponds בריכות דגים גן שמואל2
2021-05-26 06:39Hama'apil Fishponds בריכות המעפיל1
2021-05-20 15:45ÖKA Sultansazlığı--Sultansazlığı Kuş Cenneti3
2021-06-04 08:15Ein Hamifratz Fishponds בריכות עין המפרץ1
2021-05-22 05:30International Birding and Research Center Eilat (IBRCE) מרכז הצפרות הבינלאומי אילת10
2021-05-24 15:00Eilat--KM20 Flamingo Pools בריכות המלח ק"מ 201
2021-05-16 15:26Arava Valley--Ketura sewage ponds ביוב קטורה2
2021-05-17 15:00Yotvata Sewage Ponds ביוב יטבתה2
2021-05-19 18:01Tel Yosef fishponds בריכות דגים תל יוסף5
2021-05-24 17:12Neve Eitan Fish Ponds בריכות נווה איתן8
2021-05-16 07:32Nahal Avuka==נחל אבוקה8
2021-05-16 05:36Kfar Ruppin western fields כפר רופין שדות מערביים4
2021-05-21 16:20Ma'ale Gilboa Fishponds בריכות מעלה גלבוע4
2021-05-16 08:28Kfar Ruppin Amud Reservoir מאגר עמוד כפר רופין30
2021-06-06 09:05Hula Valley Nature Reserve שמורת החולה5
2021-05-18 05:50Hital Reservoir מאגר חיטל1
2021-05-24 17:00Amik Baraj Gölü14
2021-05-21 15:58Лотошинский Рыбхоз (Lotoshino Fish Farm)7
2021-05-19 16:07Tödürge Gölü, Zara, SİVAS10
2021-05-19 15:05Doğanpınar Sulama Göleti1
2021-05-16 16:00Hancağız Barajı4
2021-05-23 12:02Яхромская пойма (Yakhroma Floodplain)1
2021-05-30 08:45Остров (Ostrov Village General Area)1
2021-05-20 16:00Oruçbeyli Göleti28
2021-05-16 05:42Озеро Лакаш (Lakash Lake)7
2021-05-23 04:00Река Маныч (Manych River)25
2021-05-22 13:30Çelebibağı Sazlıkları12
2021-05-22 05:30Yaylıyaka Sulakalanları, Tuşba/Van7
2021-05-23 10:00Turna Gölü, Van10
2021-05-27 15:00IBA Erçek Gölü--Karagündüz2
2021-05-22 17:52Bughdasheni Managed Reserve2
2021-05-24 08:50ÖKA Doğubayazıt Sazlıkları-Karabulak Gölü3
2021-05-24 11:30ÖKA Doğubayazıt Sazlıkları--Örtülü Köyü25
2021-05-22 07:00Kumisi Reservoir2
2021-05-24 07:30Leeupan (Mpumalanga Province)1
2021-05-21 16:36Al Jahra Reserve (Restricted access)2
2021-05-23 06:30Salhiya Intermittent Wetlands
2021-05-19 06:08Qanbarabad Reservoir قنبراباد مخزن اب3
2021-06-06 09:50Atyrau--City Evaporation Pond3
2021-06-13 06:40Tengiz--South Evaporation Ponds (restricted access)2
2021-05-16 06:02Екатеринбург--Отстойники Северных очистных сооружений (Ekaterinburg--Sumps of Nothern Filtration Station)
2021-06-01 16:06Shey--Holy Fish Pond1
2021-05-17 19:00蘑菇湖水库 (Mushroom Lake Reservoir)3
2021-05-18 14:00福海公园 (Fuhai Park)1
2021-05-26 11:00NE Ulungur Lake (乌伦古湖-东北部)1
2021-05-22 08:00Выдрино (Vydrino)2
2021-05-16 10:25南堡盐池 (Nanpu Salt Ponds)2