The hardhead (Aythya australis) (also white-eyed duck) is the only true diving duck found in Australia. Hardheads are common in the south-east of Australia, particularly in the Murray-Darling Basin, but also in the wetter country near the coasts. They are moderately nomadic in normal years, but disperse widely in times of drought. Significant numbers reach as far afield as New Guinea, New Zealand, and the islands of the Pacific, where they can remain for some time, even breeding for a season or two.

Like the other members of the pochard group, hardheads feed by diving deeply, often staying submerged for as long as a minute at a time. They slip under the water with barely a ripple, simply lowering their heads and thrusting with their powerful webbed feet. They eat a broad range of small aquatic creatures, and supplement this with water weeds.

Hardheads prefer larger lakes, swamps and rivers with deep, still water, but are often seen in smaller streams, flooded grasslands, and shallow pools. As a general rule, they avoid coastal waters. They rarely come to land and never perch in trees.

Hardheads are small by duck standards, usually not much more than 45 cm long but reaching 60 cm sometimes, and noticeably more rounded in overall form than most ducks. Both male and female are a fairly uniform chocolate-brown above, with rufous flanks and white undersides (which are often not visible if the duck is in the water). The trailing edges and almost the entire underside of the wings are white. In the male, the eyes are a striking white, in the female, brown.

Widespread throughout its large range, the hardhead is evaluated as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
White-eyed Duck
Date Location Count
2019-10-16 09:23South Hedland Wastewater Treatment Plant2
2019-10-13 10:00Galena Bridge Rest Area10
2019-10-20 16:02Tom Price Sewage Treatment Works20
2019-10-08 13:40Nimalaica Wetland (restricted access)1
2019-10-21 14:34Broome South Wastewater Treatment Plant3
2019-10-20 08:25Lake Joondalup6
2019-10-07 17:30Lake Joondalup--Picnic Cove Park14
2019-10-12 07:51Yellagonga Regional Park--Lake Goollelal1
2019-10-15 11:45Lake Gwelup Reserve4
2019-10-20 09:44Herdsman Lake3
2019-10-18 12:14Lake Claremont10
2019-10-10 17:15Mabel Talbot Park (Jolimont)6
2019-10-17 15:30Lake Monger Reserve2
2019-10-08 09:18Shenton Park--Jualbup Lake6
2019-10-14 09:30Kings Park (Perth)1
2019-10-19 06:30John Oldham Park (Perth)5
2019-10-09 10:01Alfred Cove Nature Reserve15
2019-10-13 09:46Claisebrook Lake1
2019-10-13 09:59Mardalup Park2
2019-10-21 14:00Lake Vasto and Ozone Reserve (Perth)27
2019-10-20 08:13Swamp at -31.84673, 115.95962, Whiteman15
2019-10-20 14:06Beeliar Regional Park--North Lake1
2019-10-14 12:20Bibra Lake2
2019-10-21 09:05Coal Dam Park (Woodbridge)6
2019-10-07 17:58Dubs Close, Forrestfield8
2019-10-19 09:58Erskine Lakes14
2019-10-13 10:57Len Howard Conservation Park (Erskine)
2019-10-19 15:49Bardoc Reserve (Greenfields)3
2019-10-09 17:13Avon Weir (Northam)16
2019-10-09Wagin Wastewater Treatment Plant1
2019-10-08 09:14Parry Lagoons Nature Reserve--Marglu Billabong2
2019-10-20 14:30Rowles Lagoon Conservation Park1
2019-10-19 05:40Halls Creek Wastewater Treatment Plant4
2019-10-12 05:15Lake Argyle245
2019-10-21 07:56Kalgoorlie Sewage Ponds12
2019-10-20 18:02Leanyer Ponds
2019-10-13 16:16McMinns Lagoon3
2019-10-14 16:30Jabiru Town Lake1
2019-10-07 16:51Tennant Creek Wastewater Treatment Plant45
2019-10-20 07:00Alice Springs Sewage Ponds
2019-10-19 06:30Lake Moondarra40
2019-10-19 12:05Mount Isa Wastewater Treatment Plant10
2019-10-13 08:50Lake Moondarra--dirt road north from Peacock Park5
2019-10-18 10:00Chinaman Creek Dam15
2019-10-19 16:15Boulia Sewage Ponds2
2019-10-17 07:20Lark Quarry Conservation Park3
2019-10-20 17:15Ferrero Road wetland (Port Douglas)2
2019-10-13 11:00Mt Albion Dam, Petford to Herberton Rd2
2019-10-15 14:19Winton Sewage Ponds, off Dump Rd12
2019-10-16 05:46Long Waterhole (Winton)1
2019-10-18 14:17Hasties Swamp National Park465
2019-10-13 07:59Crater Lakes National Park--Lake Barrine3
2019-10-10 13:36Duck Lagoon (Kangaroo Island)1
2019-10-19 13:11Gleeson Wetlands (Clare)5
2019-10-15 08:51Longreach Sewage Ponds4
2019-10-10 09:43Whites Road Wetland (Bolivar)10
2019-10-19 15:00Greenfields Wetlands, Parafield Gardens4
2019-10-15 14:49Adelaide Botanic Garden3
2019-10-21 09:40Onkaparinga River Recreation Park6
2019-10-13 08:00Aldinga Scrub Conservation Park2
2019-10-12 14:58NPEC Nuriootpa Waste Water Treatment Plant3
2019-10-18 10:45Mt Lofty Botanic Garden2
2019-10-20 15:45Laratinga Wetlands
2019-10-19 08:00Inman River mouth1
2019-10-17 08:55Ross River Dam Borrow Pits Kelso1
2019-10-11 17:52Fairfield Waters Wetland
2019-10-19 12:30Goolwa Barrage6
2019-10-19 08:00Waterworks Reserve (Dynnyrne/Ridgeway)4
2019-10-08 11:00Ramco Lagoon and Wetlands90
2019-10-08 13:30Hart Lagoon6
2019-10-21 11:30Goulds Lagoon Wildlife Sanctuary8
2019-10-20 17:43Lake Dulverton Conservation Area (Oatlands)85
2019-10-10 12:11Horseshoe Lagooon, Wallpolla Island21
2019-10-16 12:26Eungella Dam--Visitor and Camping Area77
2019-10-14 13:00Eungella National Park--Diggings Rd
2019-10-07 18:24Lake Hawthorn1
2019-10-19 17:22Lake McIntyre9
2019-10-08 09:52Hattah-Kulkyne National Park85
2019-10-12 08:15Lake Hindmarsh6
2019-10-19Tasmanian Arboretum2
2019-10-20 13:05Swan Hill Sewage Treatment Plant200
2019-10-21 11:33Cullens Lake Wildlife Reserve2
2019-10-21 18:12Lake Pertobe1
2019-10-10 14:00Lagoon off Paddys Swamp Rd at -22.9897, 150.585112
2019-10-21 16:05Rockhampton Botanic Gardens10
2019-10-19 15:15Rockhampton Kershaw Gardens8
2019-10-20 17:34Rockhampton--Lakes Creek Reserve
2019-10-15 10:05Jubilee Park Lake (Skipton)4
2019-10-12 14:00Barrs Rd, Mingay (restricted access)2
2019-10-15 17:41Port Alma Rd--Eight Mile Ck freshwater wetland2
2019-10-15 15:08Macarthur Park Wetlands (Miners Rest)1
2019-10-20 07:24Bendigo Sewage Ponds--Wallenjoe Road Ponds20
2019-10-21 16:33North Gardens, Wendouree1
2019-10-21 15:15Lake Wendouree Fairyland2
2019-10-15 16:45Pauls Wetland, Wendouree7
2019-10-14 09:10Kennington Reservoir5
2019-10-12 17:02Lake Esmond, Canadian3
2019-10-13 13:34Buninyong2
2019-10-19 14:00Pilchers Bridge Nature Conservation Reserve3
2019-10-19 14:49Lake Cargelligo Wastewater Treatment Plant14
2019-10-08 10:15James Bridge Road (Picola)
2019-10-19 08:25Tondoon Botanic Gardens, Gladstone22
2019-10-13 13:50Heathcote Water Reclamation Plant21
2019-10-10 08:00Cania Gorge National Park1
2019-10-17 11:35Marengo3
2019-10-18 07:00Chinamans Lagoon (Miles)7
2019-10-13 08:30Allen Noble Sanctuary (Aireys Inlet)1
2019-10-09 12:47Warren Wetlands and Wastewater Treatment Plant6
2019-10-20 14:44Condobolin Sewage Treatment Works14
2019-10-09 13:36Deakin University--Waurn Ponds Campus4
2019-10-20 14:40Serendip Sanctuary1
2019-10-09 14:15Shepparton wastewater treatment plant (restricted access)50
2019-10-09 07:54Eynesbury Ornamental Lake3
2019-10-20 11:07Eynesbury Forest and Grasslands2
2019-10-12 13:46Belmont Common--Jerringot9
2019-10-18 07:03Victoria Park Lake (Shepparton)8
2019-10-16 06:00Fivebough Wetlands20
2019-10-19 08:16Point Henry South Gate Pond2
2019-10-18 13:04Banded Lapwing Paddock, Beach Road, Avalon1
2019-10-21 14:47Western Treatment Plant (Werribee)--T Section Ponds110
2019-10-15 09:10Princes Freeway at Little River Rd10
2019-10-10 14:36Western Treatment Plant (Werribee)--Paradise Road
2019-10-20 13:00Western Treatment Plant (Werribee)--Lake Borrie
2019-10-19 13:17Western Treatment Plant (Werribee)--Ponds 28-30 / Adjacent Coast8
2019-10-21 14:30Western Treatment Plant (Werribee)48
2019-10-18 14:59Western Treatment Plant (Werribee)--Bird Hide10
2019-10-19 13:40Western Treatment Plant (Werribee)--Conservation Ponds 35E 8 & 9
2019-10-19 14:02Lake Lorne (Drysdale)40
2019-10-14 11:40Begola Wetlands (Ocean Grove)186
2019-10-10 08:00Truganina Swamp, Altona3
2019-10-11 09:30Jacana Wetland8
2019-10-21 11:12Jawbone Flora and Fauna Reserve3
2019-10-14 12:25Westgate Park (Port Melbourne)15
2019-10-13 11:39Royal Park --Trin Warren Tam-boore2
2019-10-20 09:16Royal Park, Parkville2
2019-10-14 12:24Peter Hopper Lake and Red Leap Reserve12
2019-10-14 19:01Plenty Gorge Park--South Morang Wetlands2
2019-10-20 10:30La Trobe University Bundoora--Wildlife Sanctuary
2019-10-19 11:11Banyule Flats Reserve3
2019-10-17 11:55Karkarook Park2
2019-10-17 11:26Melbourne Water Retarding Basin Mount Waverley1
2019-10-13 11:26Madden Rd, Heatherton9
2019-10-20 11:55Braeside Park13
2019-10-15 09:59Glen Waverley Golf Course1
2019-10-20 08:30Jells Park1
2019-10-11 12:00The Keys Wetlands, Keysborough1
2019-10-20 14:26Dandenong Valley Wetland8
2019-10-21 06:40Corhanwarrabul and Ferny Creek, Knoxfield6
2019-10-18 13:32Tirhatuan Wetlands Conservation Reserve1
2019-10-15 11:26Lilydale Sewage Treatment Plant10
2019-10-12 14:21Lysterfield Park40
2019-10-12 14:53Coolart2
2019-10-16 13:30Gooramadda Road Wetlands (Rutherglen)3
2019-10-10 16:16Beaconsfield Flora and Fauna Reserve
2019-10-20 16:15Gum Swamp TSR (Forbes)10
2019-10-19 13:53Western Plains Zoo, Dubbo8
2019-10-20 11:55Swan Lake (Phillip Island)7
2019-10-15 16:20Dubbo Sewage Treatment Plant7
2019-10-20 16:05Pakenham Wastewater Treatment Plant
2019-10-11 09:15Baxters Wetland4
2019-10-07 17:22Trafalgar Wastewater Treatment Ponds (restricted access)17
2019-10-21 16:22Cowra STW12
2019-10-17 14:28Loveday Cove (Lake Cooby)20
2019-10-16 14:36Farm Dams on Morwell-Thorpdale Rd at Ten Mile Creek Rd4
2019-10-20 08:41Chatsworth Rest Area28
2019-10-21 07:00West Creek Reserve, Toowoomba4
2019-10-09 15:00Orange Botanic Gardens2
2019-10-21 18:11Charles Sturt University, Orange3
2019-10-19 07:15Spring Creek Reservoir, Orange72
2019-10-15 15:29Lake Alford Park (Gympie)50
2019-10-21 14:20Putta Bucca Wetlands, Mudgee4
2019-10-17 11:15Traralgon Railway Reservoir Conservation Reserve
2019-10-19 07:03Tumut Wastewater Treatment Plant4
2019-10-08 10:00Tumut STW and Town Common1
2019-10-14 11:14Belford Bridge, Gatton1
2019-10-19 12:26The Spit, Lake Somerset4
2019-10-18 15:00Lester Kropp Bridge (Villeneuve)1
2019-10-13 12:15Tingha3
2019-10-14 17:39Hamon Cove, Lake Wivenhoe100
2019-10-14 08:14Lake Dyer, Bill Gunn Dam, Laidley50
2019-10-14 08:30Berganns Lane, Witta1
2019-10-20 10:09Lake Baroon--south shore trail1
2019-10-14 14:56Cove Rd dam near 930 (restricted access)14
2019-10-12 15:50Parklakes Wetlands (Bli Bli)6
2019-10-10 12:48Kandos19
2019-10-14 16:47Strong Rd, Dayboro at -27.20868, 152.837032
2019-10-10 10:45Lake Samsonvale--Kobble Creek BBQ Area6
2019-10-21 16:11Lake Samsonvale--Postmans Track3
2019-10-19 09:58Lake Samsonvale--Golds Scrub Lane (some areas restricted access)20
2019-10-18 15:00Colleges Crossing2
2019-10-15 08:57Gold Creek Reservoir10
2019-10-09 06:45Kumbartcho Sanctuary6
2019-10-19 15:50Ross Road Parkland (Upper Kedron)1
2019-10-09 15:55Bunya Crossing Reserve2
2019-10-09 10:45South Pine River at Cashs Crossing, Eatons Hill2
2019-10-21 15:03Lake Eden2
2019-10-19 06:03Adavale St, Brookfield6
2019-10-17 07:48Moggill District Sports Park2
2019-10-17 15:07Pinnaroo Cemetery Swamp8
2019-10-14 16:10Harold Keilly Park (Bald Hills)8
2019-10-20 09:07AFL Grounds Wetlands (Nathan Rd, Rothwell)5
2019-10-10 14:30Tinchi Tamba Wetlands Reserve1
2019-10-17 08:00West Belconnen Pond22
2019-10-19 08:49Clontarf Environment Reserve (Frost Street, Clontarf)2
2019-10-14 15:47Mt Coot-tha Botanic Gardens
2019-10-20 06:40Dowse Lagoon (Sandgate)9
2019-10-10 16:15Edenbrooke Park (Seventeen Mile Rocks)3
2019-10-14 05:45Humpybong Creek, Redcliffe4
2019-10-21 06:57Sherwood Arboretum5
2019-10-10 05:43Roma Street Parkland (Brisbane)1
2019-10-21 15:25Oxley Creek Common1
2019-10-09 16:24Casey Wetlands8
2019-10-08 13:00University of Queensland--UQ Lakes1
2019-10-19 13:41Coaldrake Avenue Pond (Denman Prospect)1
2019-10-19 13:27Edgeworth Pond (Coombs)12
2019-10-20 09:59Coombs pond8
2019-10-12 15:53Kedron Brook Bikeway (near Nudgee Golf Club)1
2019-10-12 14:35Lake Wallace--Foreshore on western side2
2019-10-19 12:37North Weston Ponds3
2019-10-19 17:10Lake Wallace20
2019-10-13 12:23'The Farm' Dam1
2019-10-10 15:45Metroplex Wetlands2
2019-10-08 10:45Nundle8
2019-10-13 14:52Flemington Road Ponds (Kenny)19
2019-10-20 07:17Minnippi Parklands9
2019-10-21 16:30Sandy Camp Road Wetlands
2019-10-20 11:46Port of Brisbane Island including visitor centre
2019-10-21 07:00Isabella Pond15
2019-10-09 10:22Upper Stranger Pond18
2019-10-20 11:40Lithgow Wastewater Treatment Plant40
2019-10-19 18:41Jerrabomberra Wetlands NR--paddocks (east)2
2019-10-21 17:20Jerrabomberra Wetlands Nature Reserve12
2019-10-20 10:43Dairy Road pond1
2019-10-15 09:10Fyshwick Sewage Treatment Plant (no access)60
2019-10-18 15:49Berrinba Wetlands16
2019-10-21 10:06Mugga Farm Dam (restricted access)1
2019-10-12 12:06Sheeba Dams3
2019-10-14 12:51Tingalpa Creek Reserve including JC Trotter Memorial Park16
2019-10-17 07:10Tygum Park, Waterford West, Logan City3
2019-10-14 10:20Crystal Waters, Thornlands3
2019-10-16 06:00Eagleby--Eagleby Rd, south lake4
2019-10-17 17:26Cooney Cottage (Restricted access)2
2019-10-20 05:30Eprapah Creek via Sewage Treatment Plant5
2019-10-13 05:50Eagleby Wetlands7
2019-10-16 16:19Wollondilly River at Rossi Bridge and Weir14
2019-10-14 16:44Marsden Weir and Waterworks Reserve, Goulburn5
2019-10-09 08:25Bungendore Common1
2019-10-13 09:53K2C Ingelara (Restricted Access)1
2019-10-20 17:02Goulburn Maturation Ponds (restricted access)200
2019-10-19 05:51Tea Trees Wetland (Arundel)3
2019-10-19 09:47Coombabah Wastewater Treatment Plant12
2019-10-18 09:02Emerald Lakes Wetland, S pond (Carrara)6
2019-10-13 15:55Macintosh Island Park, Gold Coast12
2019-10-16 16:42Lochiel Park Lagoon, Orbost1
2019-10-21 06:10North Quarry, Penrith Lakes2
2019-10-13 10:00Tweed Regional Gallery20
2019-10-21 13:00Bushells Lagoon2
2019-10-19 06:45McGraths Hill Wastewater Treatment Plant5
2019-10-20 10:15Ferndale Reserve & Bundanoon Sewage Treatment Plant3
2019-10-20 13:40Saleyard Ponds, Berrima Rd, Moss Vale14
2019-10-19 09:30Pitt Town Lagoon150
2019-10-20 12:15Westbrook Road, Bickley Vale1
2019-10-14 08:01Pottsville Wetland--Environmental Drive Bird Survey Site11
2019-10-14 08:30Mount Annan Botanic Gardens2
2019-10-08 09:00West Byron Wetlands (Restricted access - Council key required)3
2019-10-19 11:50Lake Parramatta Reserve, Parramatta6
2019-10-10 11:22West Ballina STP (restricted access, Council permission required)100
2019-10-16 15:24Maluga Passive Park17
2019-10-09 10:30Sydney Olympic Park
2019-10-19 06:35Georges River National Park--Yeramba Lagoon3
2019-10-17 16:24Sydney Bicentennial Park--Lake Belvedere3
2019-10-19 11:36Lime Kiln Bay Reserve and Wetlands2
2019-10-14 17:21Kooindah Golf and Spa Resort, near Wyong3
2019-10-19 14:00Stanthorpe Drive, Kanahooka (restricted access)2
2019-10-10 10:45Wollongong Botanic Gardens1
2019-10-11 09:23Ash Island8
2019-10-13 13:35Hunter Wetlands Centre (Newcastle)3
2019-10-10 07:35Blue Lagoon, Woonona3
2019-10-21 06:32Bunzl Swamp (Sandgate)72
2019-10-21 08:10Victoria Park, Camperdown6
2019-10-19 10:00Sydney Park4
2019-10-21 15:24James Road Pond, Dunmore18
2019-10-15 16:09Curl Curl Lagoon10
2019-10-12 15:37Kensington Ponds2
2019-10-21 07:53Centennial Park (Sydney)30
2019-10-10 17:43Cronulla Sand Dunes Wetland15
2019-10-19 12:15Urunga Wetlands Boardwalk30
2019-10-19 13:53Coffs Harbour Botanical Gardens3
2019-10-19 08:06Vincentia Wastewater Treatment Plant1
2019-10-19 08:29Kingsworth Lake (restricted access)20
2019-10-13 08:48Hillville Road pond1
2019-10-19 14:00Boyters Lane, Jerseyville15
2019-10-15 13:30King Creek Rd Swamp, Wauchope4
2019-10-16 11:13Mallacoota Recycled Water Plant100